Fire Sprinkler Types

What are the Different Types of Fire Sprinkler Systems?

There are four fire sprinkler systems: wet pipe, dry pipe, preaction, and deluge. In each of these ways, fire damage is reduced, and flames are prevented from spreading. This type of fire sprinkler system differs from other types primarily in its application and how it is activated.

Wet Pipe Fire Sprinkler System

Fire sprinklers that use wet pipe systems contain water. Wet pipe systems are the most common type of fire sprinkler system. Facilities must maintain a temperature of 40 degrees since water is present in the system. The pipes may freeze if the temperature exceeds 40 degrees. A fire sprinkler activated by a wet line is simple to operate. Fire sprinkler elements break and release water when they reach a specified temperature. With common hazards, office buildings, schools, and high-rise buildings are equipped with wet pipe fire sprinklers.

Dry Pipe Fire Sprinkler System

In contrast to wet pipe systems, dry pipe fire sprinklers are filled with compressed air or nitrogen. Dry pipe valves are held closed by air pressure to prevent water entering. Fire sprinklers activate when they detect a sudden temperature increase, causing the air pressure to fall in the system. Water floods the dry pipe fire sprinkler system when the dry pipe valve opens. Once the sprinkler is activated, the water is discharged into the dry pipe. Dry pipe fire sprinklers are ideal in areas subject to freezing temperatures since they do not contain water. This fire protection system is standard in unheated warehouses, parking garages, and attics.

Pre-Action Fire Sprinkler System

Instead of using water, preaction sprinklers use pressurized air or nitrogen. It takes two steps to activate preaction sprinklers. Heat or smoke detectors must first detect a fire and send a signal to start the preaction valve. As a result, water is pumped into the system. A fire sprinkler head must see an increase in temperature to indicate a fire. Fire sprinklers immediately throw water on fire once they are triggered. It takes two steps to activate a preaction fire sprinkler system, preventing accidental activation. This type of fire sprinkler system can be installed in museums, server rooms, libraries, and data centers because of its compact design.

Deluge Fire Sprinkler System

Due to the open-style sprinkler heads' ability to discharge water quickly, deluge fire sprinkler systems are often used in high-risk facilities. The sprinkler heads of these systems are always open, and they activate simultaneously, unlike other types. Water and pressurized air are also absent from these systems. Fire sprinklers are activated when a smoke or heat detector detects smoke or heat. Each sprinkler head releases water when this occurs. Flames can grow and spread quickly when highly combustible materials catch fire. Deluge fire sprinkler systems are essential for factories, airplane hangars, and manufacturing plants.

Fire sprinkler systems can be classified into four main types. Fire sprinklers are classified according to their effectiveness depending on the facility type and the hazards present. Regardless of how each system activates and whether the pipes contain pressurized air, water, or neither, they all stop fires from spreading. To learn more about fire sprinkler response times and the difference between standard response, quick response, and open fire sprinklers, please visit Standard Response, Quick Response, and Open Fire Sprinklers.